Written in Stone: Jesuit buildings in Goa and their artistic and architectural features

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Written in Stone: Jesuit buildings in Goa and their artistic and architectural features | Cristina Osswald

Written in Stone: Jesuit buildings in Goa and their artistic and architectural features

Cristina Osswald

Goa 1556

January 2013

9789380739168

400 pages

 

A very detailed look at the art and architecture of the Jesuit buildings in Goa, once the headquarters of the Portuguese empire in the East. Among the buildings studied are the Colegio de S. Paulo Velho (1541-1578), the male and female catechumenates (1550s), the hospital for indigenous people (1551), the noviciate (1556-1664), the orphanage (1558), the first church of S. Paulo Velho (1541-1560), the second church of S. Paulo Velho (1560-1579), the Bom Jesus (1594-1605), the Colegio de S Paulo Novo (1610-1620), the colegio do Espirito Santo in Salcete, the Colegio de Santo Inacio, Rachol (1606-09), and the recreation site at Santana.

Cristina Osswald is an art historian and has a PhD on Jesuit art in Goa (1542 to 1655) from the European University Institute, Florence. She did post-doctoral research on the life of the Jesuits and Franciscans in Portugal, India and Brazil (16th to 18th century), with the Universidade do Minho (Portugal), the UNED (Madrid) and UNICAMP (Brazil). She teaches at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa's Department of Art History.

Preliminary Note: The Relevance of Modo Goano
Preface
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
List of pictures
Published Primary Sources

1. Introduction

Aims

Discussion of sources

Primary non-religious sources
Primary sources concerning the Padroado Português do Oriente
Jesuit sources
Jesuit chronicles
Jesuit annual letters
Catalogues

Secondary sources

Histories of Portuguese Expansion and histories of the Catholic Church
General literature on the Jesuits
Literature on the Society of Jesus in the Orient
Literature on the Catholic Reform
Literature on Jesuit art
Literature on Catholic art in the Orient

2. Jesuit buildings in Goa

General evolution

The chequered history of the Colégio de S. Paulo Velho (1541-1578)
Paulo Velho’s imposing architectonic and artistic features
The male and female catechumenates (1550s)
The hospital for indigenous people (1551)
The Noviciate (1556-1664)
The Orphanage (1558)
The first church of S. Paulo Velho (1541-1560)
The pioneering role of the second church of S. Paulo Velho (1560-1572) in introducing the gusto alla romana in India
The fundamental devotional role of the second church of S. Paulo Velho
The difficulties posed by the foundation of the Professed House (1586- c. 1597)
The preference for Modo Goano over Modo Nostro
The Bom Jesus (1594-1605)
The conscious betrayal of the binding ideal of poverty by the Professed House in Goa
The chequered history of the Colégio de S. Paulo Novo (1610-1620)
The Colégio do Espírito Santo in Salcete
The Colégio de Santo Inácio, Rachol (1606-09)
Small settlements (residences) ... in Salcete
The recreation site at Santana

3. Goa, the ‘Rome of the Orient’

Transformation from an Indian city to European
The choice of Goa as the Padroado capital
Politics of Tabula Rasa
Distribution of missionary areas
A successful patronage
To diffuse the “word of God”
The reasserted role of Eucharist in the missions
Penitence, Confession and reformation of customs
Magnificence of ritual in conversion
Lavishness in religious art
Importance of a visual Catholicism
Main iconographic concerns
Cults
The eclectic character of Catholic art in Goa

4. General aspects of the Jesuit conception of art

Priests and art
Jesuit regulations on art
Jesuit regulations on art
Main principles
Oscillations between the austere and the lavish
Jesuits and patrons
Jesuit buildings
Educational institutions
Professed houses
Noviciates and probation houses
Catechumenates
Houses for the Spiritual Exercises
Interdicted functions
Main ministries and church furniture
Jesuit non cantat!
A theology of the visible
Jesuit devotional and iconographic programs

5. Framework of the Jesuit Artistic Activity in Goa

Historical-geographical framework
Priests and artists
Matters of patronage
Successful fundraising
Jesuit buildings in Goa
The international character of Jesuit Art in Goa
Jesuit churches in Goa
The Jesuit cult and iconography in Goa
A visual conception of Christianity: imposing ceremonies and lavishness in art

6. Conclusions

Appendix I

Artists who worked in Goa, 1542-1655

Bartolomeu Álvares
Manuel Álvares
Francisco Aranha
Cristovão Araújo
Cosme Cardoso
Luís Castanho
Gaspar Coelho
Giovanni Cola
Giovanni de Manolis
António Dias
Gonçalo Dias
Belchior or Melchior Dias
João Dias
Manuel Dias
João de Faria
Domingos Fernandes
Diogo Ferrão
Manuel Figueiredo
Bartolomeo Fontebuoni
Domingos Francisco
João Gonçalves
Diogo Guerreiro
Luís Jorge
Markus Maecht or Maech
António Magno
Juan Martin
Baltazar Nunes
Martin Ochoa
João Rodrigues
Inofre or Onofre Rodrigues
Sebastião Rodrigues
Iacob Pauo
António Pires
Júlio Simão

Appendix II

Bibliography

Manuscript sources
Published sources

  • Sala, Dalton, and Sandro Olaza Pallero. "Whitten in Stone: Jesuit buildings in Goa and their artistic and architectural features." IHS: Antiguos Jesuitas en Iberoamérica 1, no. 1 (2013): 329-332.

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